Cognitive Functions Exhibited within Human Behavior

Reply to:


Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Cognitive Functions Exhibited within Human Behavior
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

Researchers within the field of psychology are interested in various higher order cognitive functions exhibited within human behavior. However, one area that is highly researched is that of language, or the way in which human beings communicate with one another. This communication can take place and be processed and produced either audibly or visually (Gazzaniga, Irvy, & Mangun, 2018). This function within humans is supported via various brain structures making up the perisylvian language network of the left hemisphere. This network includes brain areas such as portions of the posterior superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke’s Area), anterior and lateral temporal cortex, inferior parietal lobe, inferior frontal cortex, and the insular cortex. Additionally, language comprehension is upported via processes in the right hemisphere such as the temporal sulcus and right prefrontal cortex, middle gyrus and the posterior cingulate (Gazzaniga, Irvy, & Mangun, 2018).

Along with physical brain structures, researchers also believe that the function of language comprehension is supported by a type of mental storage system that includes various aspects of language called the mental lexicon. This suspected mental lexicon stores information including word meanings (semantic info), how words can be combined to form sentences (syntactic info) and details of different forms and sound patterns of words (Gazzaniga, Irvy, & Mangun, 2018). With this storage system, the human brain can quickly process word-form activations based off of intended input or output (lexical access), select best matches from the storage device to match input or output (lexical selection), and integrate words into full sentences in order to develop coherent communication in the form of language, or lexical integration (Gazzaniga, Irvy, & Mangun, 2018).

Although researchers can learn much about brain structures involved in language by studying fMRI’s from healthy brains, they often learn invaluable data by studying those with deficits in their language abilities, or aphasia. Aphasia is a term describing the abnormality of language comprehension or production due to lesions in various parts of the language system of the brain (Gazzaniga, Irvy, & Mangun, 2018). Depending on where the lesion is located and which systems they are affecting, researchers have classified aphasia into many different categories. Two forms of aphasia that can be present within an individual are Wernicke’s Aphasia and Conduction Aphasia.

Within Wernicke’s Aphasia, patients often experience deficits in their ability to understand spoken or written language. Although they fail to comprehend incoming language, these patients often do not struggle speaking with normal fluency. In some cases, these individuals may be able to communicate, but they are unaware that what they say does not always make sense to the recipient (Gazzaniga, Irvy, & Mangun, 2018). In addition to nonsensical output, or errors in lexical selection of words, these individuals also exhibit other types of lexical output errors. For example, they may also produce unintended syllables, phrases and words, a condition known as paraphasic errors (Drago & Foster, 2011). Wernicke’s Aphasia is often categorized with lesions within specific areas of the brain. For example, lesions within the superior temporal lobe, auditory association cortex, and the posterior superior temporal gyrus. Additionally, damage to the white matter within the temporal lobe or supramarginal gyrus is noted in some cases that result in Wernicke’s Aphasia (Drago & Foster, 2011).

On the other hand, those who suffer form Conduction Aphasia suffer from a different list of issues. Conduction Aphasia will likely not stop someone from speaking fluently, but, like Wernicke’s Aphasia, they may experience paraphasic errors, or the unintentional use of syllables and extra phonemes within speech production (Drago & Foster, 2011). Additionally, this specific aphasia is associated with repeated phonological attempts to communicate a specific word, poor sentence repetition, and difficulty encoding incoming written or spoken language (lexical access and selection) (Cocks et al., 2011). Those who suffer from this condition may also experience issues comprehending information, assigning labels to specific items, and experience complications with their short-term memory system (Drago & Foster, 2011). Just as was the case in Wernicke’s Aphasia, Conduction Aphasia is associated with damage noted within specific brain areas. For example, those with this condition typically exhibit lesions within the left temporal cortex, left parietal cortex, and the left planum temporal region. Along with lesions, typically these patients show decreased amounts of white matter in the supramarginal gyrus and left parietal cortex (Drago & Foster, 2011).

Essay Writing Pros
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Work with Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

Our writers have been trained on how to handle papers placed by our clients. The writer must read and understand before embarking on writing the papers. In case of any issue that needs clarification, writers are encouraged to ask the client or support.

Professional and Experienced Academic Writers

Our team comprises of the best writers and editors. We do thorough vetting during recruitment to make sure that our writers have the knowledge and experience we aspire in the team.

Free Unlimited Revisions

Our aim is to give the client the best outcome. If for some reason you are not satisfied with the wok done, you can ask the paper to be revised or rewritten. This will be done to your satisfaction with no extra charges.

Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

We have writers who work round the clock. This helps in making sure that all our clients’ papers are delivered on time. If we have issues with the deadline, we will ask for extension. If its not possible, the money is fully refunded.

Original & Confidential

Our clients’ confidentiality is highly respected. We can never disclose our clients’ details to third parties. In the same regard, we strive to give our clients 100% original papers. We do not tolerate plagiarism from our writers.

24/7 Customer Support

Clients can reach us any time of the day, and any day of the week. There is a live chat, email or phone numbers to help in ease of communication.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

You should never be worried about your papers even in the middle of the night. Our team will work round the clock to deliver.


Essay Writing Service

We have an able team that can deliver your work in the shortest time possible. The academic level or the type of work should never be a hindrance. Our highly competent support team is always around (24/7) to give you any assistance you may need.


Admission Essays & Business Writing Help

Do you need to be admitted in your dream institution but find it challenging to write an admission essay? Our team is in a position to write the best letter that will guarantee you an admission. We do as well write the best business proposals and reports.


Editing Support

Writing can be fun and enjoyable when everything has been done right. Writing is not just enough without proper editing and proofreading. We have a team of editors that ensure everything falls in place, whether its issues to do with grammar or referencing styles.


Revision Support

Once the paper has been done and submitted, that is not the end of it. You can always ask for amendment or improvement if you feel something has not been done right. Our team of writers and editors will gladly assist you to your satisfaction. Revision is free of charge.