1. The hallmarks of birds include _____.

a. hollow bones

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b. clawed feet

c. feathers

d. b and c


2. The following are typical modifications of the forelimb of birds: _____.

a. long claws and short ulna

b. keeled sternum and fused carpals

c. short femur and long tarsals

d. fused shoulder joint and clawed hands


3. The only feature of Archaeopteryx not possessed by all theropods was its _____.

a. furculum

b. beak

c. sternum

d. feathers


4. Archaeopteryx was _____.

a. an arboreal glider

b. a fast ground runner

c. aquatic

d. quadrupedal


5. The principal criticism of the cursorial hypothesis of the origin of flight is that _____.

a. the wings of gliders are very different from those of birds

b. feathered dinosaurs are not known

c. catching insects with feathered hands does not seem practical

d. none of the above


6. Archaeopteryx may represent _____.

a. an evolutionary dead end

b. the ancestor of later birds

c. an aberrant theropod

d. all of the above


7. True or False–Birds are the most diverse group of vertebrates except for the bony fishes.

8. True or False– Birds are descended from tetanuran theropods.




define the following terms.

9. Air sac

10. Arboreal hypothesis

11. Aves

12. Bird

13. Cursorial hypothesis

14. Enantiornithine

15. Feather

16. Furcula

17. Pneumatic

18. Pneumatic duct

19. Ratite

20. Solnhofen Limestone

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