The use of the sufficient condition test and the necessary condition test de- pends on certain features of the world being sometimes present and some- times absent. Some features of the world, however, are always present to some degree. Because they are always present, the NCT will never elimi- nate them as possible necessary conditions of any event, and the SCT will never eliminate anything as a sufficient condition for them. Yet the extent or degree to which a feature exists in the world is often a significant phe- nomenon that demands causal explanation.
An example should make this clear. In recent decades, a controversy has raged over the impact of acid rain on the environment of the northeastern United States and Canada. Part of the controversy involves the proper inter- pretation of the data that have been collected. The controversy has arisen for the following reason: The atmosphere always contains a certain amount of acid, much of it from natural sources. It is also known that an excess of acid in the environment can have severe effects on both plants and animals. Lakes are particularly vulnerable to the effects of acid rain. Finally, it is also acknowl- edged that industries, mostly in the Midwest, discharge large quantities of sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the air, and this increases the acidity of water in the atmosphere. The question—and here the controversy begins—is whether the contribution of acid from these industries is the cause of the environmental damage downwind of them.
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