For flexible pavements, four types of cracking are usually monitored: longitudinal-fatigue cracking, transverse cracking, alligator cracking, and reflection cracking. Longitudinal-fatigue cracking is a surface-down cracking that occurs due to material fatigue in the wheel path. Such cracking can accelerate over time and require significant repairs to protect against water penetration into the flexible pavement structure. Transverse cracking is generally the result of low temperatures that cause fractures across the traffic lanes (resulting in an increase in pavement roughness). Alligator-fatigue cracking is a consequence of material fatigue in the wheel path, generally starting from the
bottom of the asphalt layer. Such material fatigue creates a patch of connected cracks that resembles the skin of an alligator (as with other types of cracks, these can accelerate quickly over time and generate the need for maintenance to protect the integrity of the pavement structure). Finally, reflection cracking occurs when HMA overlays are placed over exiting pavement structures that had alligator-fatigue cracking, or other indications of pavement distress, and these old distresses manifest themselves in new distresses in the overlay. This results in surface cracking that increases surface roughness and the need for maintenance to protect water intrusion into the pavement structure.
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