Initial Green. This period provides a practical minimum amount of green time to the traffic movement. Extended Green. After the initial green time expires, the phase enters an extension mode. This extension mode provides a continuation of green time as long as a vehicle arrives (at the detector) within a specified amount of time after the arrival of the previous vehicle.
A maximum green time is also specified for the phase. Thus, even if the arrival rate of vehicles is high enough to continue the extension period indefinitely, the phase will eventually be terminated so that other traffic movements can be served. If the phase terminates in this manner, it is referred to as a max-out condition. If the phase terminates prior to reaching the maximum green time, due to the time gap in successive vehicle arrivals exceeding the extension interval (the time allowed between successive vehicle arrivals before it is assumed no more vehicles are arriving), this is referred to as a gap-out condition.
Initial green periods are intended to serve all, or most, of the vehicle queue that develops during that traffic movement’s red period. Vehicles that join the queue at the start of green, or arrive just after queue clearance, are usually handled during the extension period. Therefore, a large enough green time should be specified so that the regularly expected initial queue length can be served, but not too large that excessive green time is wasted during cycles with much lower than average vehicle arrivals. Additionally, the green time should be at least several seconds greater than the lost time for a phase. Typical minimum green times are on the order of 10 seconds.
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