The Highway Capacity Manual also includes a formula for estimating the delay caused by an initial queue of vehicles at the beginning of the analysis time period, denoted as d3. This equation and its inputs are beyond the scope if this book; however. If no initial queue is present at the start of the analysis period, the d3 term is simply set to zero.
Thus, estimation of signal delay as prescribed in the Highway Capacity Manual [Transportation Research Board 2016] includes two terms in addition to a term for calculating delay due to uniform arrivals, as follows:
= + +1 2 3d d d d (7.27)
d = average signal delay per vehicle in seconds, d1 = average delay per vehicle due to uniform arrivals in seconds, d2 = average delay per vehicle due to random arrivals in seconds, and d3 = average delay per vehicle due to initial queue at start of analysis time period,
For signalized intersections where vehicle arrivals are not influenced by coordination, isolated signalized intersections for one, the PVG is considered to be equal to the g/C ratio. If signal coordination results in different arrival rates for the green and red intervals.
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