Pharmacodynamics describes the interactions between medications and target cells, body systems, and organs to produce effects. These interactions result in functional changes that are the mechanism of action of the medication. Medications interact with cells in one of two ways or in both ways.
Agonists are medications that bind to or mimic the receptor activity that endogenous compounds regulate. For example, morphine is an agonist because it activates the receptors that produce analgesia, sedation, constipation, and other effects. (Receptors are the medication’s target sites on or within the cells.)
Antagonists are medications that can block the usual receptor activity that endogenous compounds regulate or the receptor activity of other medications. For example, losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, is an antagonist. It works by blocking angiotensin II receptors on blood vessels, which prevents vasoconstriction.
Partial agonists act as agonists and antagonists, with limited affinity to receptor sites. For example, nalbuphine acts as an antagonist at mu receptors and an agonist at kappa receptors, causing analgesia with minimal respiratory depression at low doses.
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