Three items used to measure devaluation stigma associated with drug use were modified for the present study to assess participant’s devaluation stigma due to the following three signifiers of social identities: race, substance use, and mental illness, with a total of nine items such as “Most people think that someone from my race, ethnicity, or color is not a good person,” “Most people believe that someone who uses alcohol/drugs is dangerous,” and “Most people think that someone who suffers a mental illness is unreliable.” Items were rated on a dichotomous response scale consisting of 0 ( disagree) and 1 ( agree). A subscale score was created by summing the response to each of the three items with possible scores ranging from 0 to 3; however, because of nonnormal distribution of responses for each subscale, the subscale score was dichotomized into 0 (endorsed agreement with none or at least one of three items) and 1 (endorsed agreement with at least two or three items). Within this sample, each of the subscale scores demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach’s for race .84, substance use .75, and mental illness .70, respectively). Additionally, four interaction terms were created to examine relationships of intersections of devaluation stigma based on one’s affiliation with more than one social identity with each of the dependent variables.
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